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GeoDIL Images

University of North Dakota

The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND) in fall 2000. Dexter Perkins and Joseph Hartman, of UND's Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, are the Library Directors.

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GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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UND/NDSU students, GeoDIL librarians and administrators in action Description: UND/NDSU students, GeoDIL librarians and administrators in action. Collecting data for GeoDIL can be a demanding job. Location: USA ▹ Hawaii Tech details: 75 KB. Vista. Cannon EOS Rebel 55mm. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Agate Description: Agate is a cryptocrystalline (crystals too small to be seen even by a microscope) variety of quartz. These varieties are divided more by character than by color. These different variatites are often used as semi-precious gemstones and for decorative purposes. Location: USA ▹ Montana Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #1630. Tech details: 478 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Limestone sea arch, south coast, Portugal Description: This photo shows a small sea arch, cut through limestone, near the southernmost point of Portugal. Location: Portugal Tech details: 462 KB. Outcrop. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND) in fall 2000. Dexter Perkins and Joseph Hartman, of...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Nessa Eull
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Calcite with quartz and ankerite, Galena, New Mexico Description: This is a geode containing calcite, CaCO 3 , with quartz, SiO 2 , and ankerite, CaFe(CO 3 ) 2 . The ankerite is brown, the calcite is the large white crystals, and the quartz is all in small crystals on the interior wall of the geode. This sample comes from Galena, New Mexico, and is about 6 cm across. Location: USA ▹ New Mexico. Near Galena. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #642. Tech details: 677...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Quartz with dolomite Description: This sample contains white quartz, SiO 2 (silicon dioxide), and brown dolomite, CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 (calcium magnesium carbonate). Both are common minerals. Quartz is often white (or clear), but this hue of brown is a bit uncommon for dolomite. The quartz crystals in this sample have quartz's typical hexagonal prismatic shape. Dolomite typically forms rhombohedrons but some crystals (such as the ones in this specimen) curve into elongate saddle-shaped crystals. This...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Mike Davis
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Lamprophyre, Spanish Peaks, Colorado Description: This lamprophyre is a dark gray uniformly fine-grained rock. Lamprophyres are dark colored igneous rocks, often having the general appearance of basalt. Lamprophyres, however, are closer to andesite in composition and typically contain biotite (phlogopite). Although not identifiabled in this photograph, the fine mineral grains consist of olivine, magnetite, augite, plagioclase and biotite. This specimen is 8 cm across. Lamprophyres may also...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Fancy Yellow Diamond Description: Diamond, elemental carbon (C), is the hardest substance found in nature, diamond is four times harder than the next hardest natural mineral, corundum (sapphire and ruby). Diamond comes from the Greek word “adamas,” meaning “I tame.” The beautiful hues of colored diamonds are caused by the presence and distribution of small amounts of nitrogen (yellow) or boron (blue) within the diamond. This sample is a cushion cut diamond, with the color/clarity rating...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Intergrowth of quartz, sphalerite and pyrite from a hydrothermal deposit Description: This sample, 4 cm across, contains conspicuous prismatic quartz crystals, dark (nearly black) sphalerite, and golden pyrite. The specimen comes from a hydrothermal deposit in Huaron, Peru. Location: Peru. Near Huaron. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection. Tech details: 610 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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A “final” resting place for Hell Creek mollusks Description: A “final” resting place for Hell Creek Formation mollusks, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Chronostratigraphy: Upper Cretaceous. Lithostratigraphy: Hell Creek Formation. Geologic province: Williston Basin. Location: USA ▹ North Dakota ▹ Grand Forks. Near Grand Forks. Hartman paleocabinet. Collection: Joseph Hartman C8804. Tech details: 214 KB. Ektachrome, TIFF format. The Geoscience Digital Image...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Albite Description: Albite is a common felspar and is the “pivot” mineral of two different feldspar series. Albite is the last of the feldspars to crystallize from molten rock. All plagioclase feldspars show a type of twinning that is named after albite. Albite's chemical formula is NaAlSi 3 O 8 . The name comes from the Latin, albus, in allusion to the common color. Location: USA ▹ Virginia. Near Ameila Courthouse. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #1691. Tech...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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UND Hawaii Spring Break 2002 Description: You will find this no where else! Photos of martians Beth Eslinger and Darla Sondrol. The martians are standing on a recent aa flow in Hawaii. Location: USA ▹ Hawaii. Near Kona. Recent aa flows on the way to Kona. Collection: Joseph Hartman C9252. Tech details: 270 KB. Kodachrome, TIFF. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Banded limonite-hematite and greenalite Rock Description: Banded hematie-limonite and greenlite rock from the upper Huronian, Biwabic Formation. Limonite is not a true mineral, but a mixture of similar hydrated iron oxide minerals. Hematite, Fe 2 O 3 (iron oxide), is an important iron ore. Location: USA ▹ Minnesota. Near Hibbing. Albany Pit. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #3641. Tech details: 1.03 MB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Shield volcanoes: View of Mauna Kea (left distance) and Mauna Loa (right distance) from Maui Description: This is a view from the highest point in Haleakala National Park on Maui, east across the ocean to Hawaii’s big island. The two mountains that can be seen on the big island are Mauna Kea (left) and Mauna Loa (right). Shiled volcanoes are often so large that they are hard to photograph. Fortunately, the Hawaiian islands provide room to step back and get a large view. Location: USA ▹...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Mike Davis
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Vishnu schist, Grand Canyon, Arizona Description: This sample of the Precambrian Vishnu Schist is quite fine grained. Mineral identification is difficult in hand specimen, but in thin section biotite, muscovite, quartz and plagioclase are easily seen. The Vishnu Schist is one of the oldest rock units in the Grand Canyon, and in North America. This schist averages about 1,700 to 2,000 million years old. This specimen is 9.5 cm across. Chronostratigraphy: Precambrian. Location: USA ▹ Arizona....
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Neil Kadrmas
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Dioptase, CuSiO 2 (OH) 2 Description: Dioptase is a relatively rare mineral, but is well known because many specimens are exceptionally beautiful. It is one of the few minerals that can be as vivid green as emerald. In some literature dioptase is refered to as “emerald copper.” Dioptase has composition CuSiO 2 (OH) 2 and forms in alteration zones of copper deposits. This sample comes from a famous locality at Altyn-Tube, in the Kirghese Steppes, Kazakhstan. Location: Kazakhstan. Near...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Norbergite with calcite from Franklin, New Jersey Description: The white mineral in this sample is calcite, CaCO 3 . The darker brown-red mineral is norbergite, Mg 3 SiO 4 (F, OH) 2 , a mineral that is a member of the humite group. This sample is from Franklin, New Jersey, a world famous locality that has produced many spectacular mineral species. This sample is about 3.5 cm across. Location: USA ▹ New Jersey ▹ Sussex. Near Franklin. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Rhodochrosite and quartz Description: The pink and orange mineral is rhodochrosite, MnCO 3 . Most of the rest of the material white to gray is quartz. This sample is 6 cm across. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #1927. Tech details: 871 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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Upper Cretaceous Lameta Formation and Deccan Traps, Lameta Ghat, near Jabalpur, India Description: View across Lameta Formation toward Deccan Trap basalts on other side of Narmada River. Geologic section located on eastern edge of Deccan Plateau, at Lameta Ghat, near Jabalpur, India. Chronostratigraphy: Upper Cretaceous. Lithostratigraphy: Lameta Formation, Deccan Traps. Geologic province: Deccan Plateau. Location: India ▹ Madhya Pradesh. Near Jabalpur. Collection: Joseph Hartman C04073. Tech...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Rose quartz Description: Rose quartz, SiO 2 (silicon dioxide), is opaque to translucent macrocrystalline quartz of pink to rose-red color. It normally occurs in the cores of large pegmatites as solid masses of rose colored quartz whose individual crystals have poorly formed boundaries. The color of rose quartz is still not completely understood. It has been said to be due to a number of different minor impurities present including titanium, manganese and even colloidal gold. Location:...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Microcline Description: Microcline belongs to the Feldspar Group. Microcline is a common, but not a well known mineral. Some forms of microcline, such as amazonite and perthite, have been used as semi-precious stones. Microcline is a polymorph of other minerals that share the same chemistry, but have different crystal structures. Its mineral formula is KAlSi 3 O 8 . Microcline comes from the Greek mikron meaning “little” and klinein meaning “to stoop”. Location: USA ▹ Colorado. Near...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Graphic granite Description: This rock typically consists of nearly parallel rodlike masses of quartz (SiO 2 ) surrounded by feldspar (XAl (1-2) Si (3-2) O 8 ). It is used as gemstones for pieces such as pendants and for fashioning ornaments, particularly relatively large ones such as bookends. It can be found anywhere where granite is. Location: Canada ▹ Ontario Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #1696. Tech details: 478 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Nessa Eull
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Realgar and orpiment from Felsobanya, Hungary Description: Realgar, AsS (arsenic sulfide), is one of only a few sulfides that are non-metallic, opaque or blandly colored. Realgar occurs in hydrothermal veins with valuable metal sulfide ores and its bright red color is distinctive. Orpiment, As 2 S 3 (arsenic sulfide), is a rare mineral that usually forms with realgar. In fact the two minerals are almost always together. The yellow color is special to orpiment and can be confused only with a few...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Nessa Eull
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Barite Description: This sample of barite (BaSO 4 ), from an unknown location, is 16 cm across. Barite has many different habits, but some of the most interesting samples are composed of blades or tabs in large aggregates, as shown here. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection. Tech details: 722 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Students on fieldtrip at Joshua Tree National Park, California Description: Joshua Tree, one of the United State's newest National Parks, is located in the Mojave Desert just a few hours east of Los Angeles. The park is best known the outcrops of Mesozoic granite and for its cactus and other desert vegetation (including Joshua Trees). Chronostratigraphy: Mesozoic. Location: USA ▹ California. Near Joshua Tree. In National Park. Tech details: 88 KB. Vista. Canon Supershot S40. The Geoscience...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Yosemite Falls Description: Yosemite Falls is one of several spectacular and well known waterfalls in Yosemite Valley National Park. The falls, fed by snowmelt from the high Sierra peaks, exist because glacial erosion has carved Yosemite Valley into a smooth deep valley. Yosemite Falls is a composite waterfall totaling 746 meters (2,425 ft), with the Upper Fall (435 m; 1,430 ft), Middle Cascades (208 m; 675 ft), and Lower Fall (98 m; 320 ft). The steps result from the horizontal jointing...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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Pierce's Ferry Description: Found at Pierce's Ferry, Arizona. Near Travertine Cave, fresh surface of tubes. Location: USA ▹ Arizona. Near Las Vegas. Pierce's Ferry, Travertine Cave. Collection: Joseph Hartman PO4313. Tech details: 3.62 MB. Hand specimen. Kodachrome, TIFF. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Microcline Description: Microcline belongs to the Feldspar Group. Microcline is a common, but not a well known mineral. Some forms of microcline, such as amazonite and perthite, have been used as semi-precious stones. Microcline is a polymorph of other minerals that share the same chemistry, but have different crystal structures. Its mineral formula is KAlSi 3 O 8 . Microcline comes from the Greek mikron meaning “little” and klinein meaning “to stoop”. Location: USA ▹ Colorado. Near...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Fluorite from Roxbury, Connecticut Description: This cleavage fragment of fluorite, CaF 2 , is about 6.5 cm across. Fluorite typically forms cubic crystals. Many sharp looking fluorite specimens are octahedral, but they are mostly cleavage fragments rather than whole crystals. Location: USA ▹ Connecticut. Near Roxbury. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection. Tech details: 605 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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Freshwater mollusks in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, Garfield County Description: Freshwater molluscan river clams associated with excavation in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, Garfield County, Montana. Chronostratigraphy: Upper Cretaceous, Maastrichtian. Lithostratigraphy: Hell Creek. Geologic province: Williston Basin. Location: USA ▹ Montana ▹ Garfield. Near Jordan. Collection: Joseph Hartman C07108. Tech details: 673 KB. Outcrop. Kodachrome, TIFF format. The...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Kilbourne Hole, Potrillo Volcanic Field, New Mexico Description: Kilbourne Hole is a maar volcanic crater, located 30 miles west of the Franklin mountains of El Paso, Texas, in the Potrillo Volcanic Field of Doña Ana County, New Mexico. The hole is a rare example of volcanic action without a mountainous rim. The theory of formation is that a volcanic eruption occurs in the presence of ground waters, beneath the surface of the earth. As the hot lava and magma encounter the waters, a huge bubble...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Thin section of hornblende andesite Description: This is a cross polarized thin section of hornblende andesite. Abundant oscillatory-zoned plagioclase with glomeroporphritic amphibole set in a fine-grained, plagioclase-rich groundmass. Amphiboles show dark reaction rims. Minor amounts of unaltered augite are present. Magnetite is an accessory. Chronostratigraphy: Triassic. Geologic province: Excelsior. Location: USA ▹ Nevada ▹ Mineral Collection: Ward’s Collection of Classic North...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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Travertine Cave Description: A cobble strewn surface near Travertine Cave in Arizona. Can see samples of bright angel, rusty-brown dolomite and cobble. Location: USA ▹ Arizona. Near Las Vegas. Pierce's Ferry, Travertine Cave. Collection: Joseph Hartman PO4316. Tech details: 11.9 MB. Vista. Kodachrome, TIFF. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Beryl, var. aquamarine Description: Beryl is a silicate with the chemical formula Be 3 Al 2 (SiO 3 ) 6 . Beryl is not a well known mineral and it comes in many color varieties. The green beryl, emerald and the blue beryl, aquamarine, are the most popular among gem collectors. Some varieties are fluorescent or insoluble in acids. Beryl is a very important economic mineral and the major source of beryllium. Location: Brazil. Near Minas Gerais. Collection: Ward’s Classroom Collection of Gem...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Tetrahedrite with quartz and pyrite Description: Tetrahedrite, Cu 12 Sb 4 S 13 (copper antimony sulfide), can form interesting and handsome mineral specimens. Often it will contain a certain percentage of silver and be used as a minor ore. The multi-faceted tetrahedral crystals as well as the flat faced simple tetrahedral crystals can be very striking and a real pleasure for mineral collectors to own. It can often be found with quartz and pyrite, as in this sample. Location: Hungary. Near...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Natrochalcite Description: Natrochalite is an emerald green copper mineral from Chuquicamata, Chile. It is a secondary mineral, often forming in veins or crusts associated with copper ores. It has formula NaCu 2 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH,H 2 O) 2 . This specimen is 7.5 cm in longest direction. Location: Chile. Near Chuquicamata. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #830. Tech details: 743 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Celsian with gillespite and sanbornite Description: Celsian belongs to the Feldspar Group. Celsian has the chemical formula BaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 . It was named after the Swedish astronomer and natural scientist, A. Celsius. Location: USA ▹ California ▹ Mariposa Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #2913. Tech details: 338 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Dolomite crystals on dolomitic mudstone Description: Here we see nicely formed rhombohedral crystals of dolomite, CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 (calcium magnesium carbonate). They crystallized on top of a slab of dolomitic mudstone. Dolomite crystals often have a beautiful pinkish color, pearly luster and unusual crystal habit that includes curved crystal faces. This sample is 14 cm across. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #629. Tech details: 789 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Nessa Eull
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Krohnkite Description: Krohnkite is a secondary copper mineral that is found in the oxidized zones of copper ore deposits. It has composition Na 2 Cu(SO 4 ) 2 ·2(H 2 O). The source of this specimen, 8 cm across, is unkown. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection. Tech details: 456 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Orthoclase with Quartz Description: Orthoclase belongs to the Feldspar group. Orthoclase is a polymorph of other minerals that share the same chemistry, but have different crystal structures. Orthoclase is the main k-spar of granites and syenites that cooled moderately quickly. Twinning is common in all feldspars and Carlsbad twinning is more common in Orthoclase. Orthoclase comes from the Greek orthos meaning “right” and kalo meaning “I cleave” in allusion to the mineral's right angle...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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Upper Cretaceous freshwater unionids (mollusks, clams) from the Fossil Forest locality, Fruitland Formation, New Mexico Description: Upper Cretaceous freshwater unionids (mollusks, clams) from the Fossil Forest locality near adjacent cliff, Fruitland Formation, New Mexico. Chronostratigraphy: Upper Cretaceous, Maastrichtian. Lithostratigraphy: Fruitand Formation. Geologic province: San Juan Basin. Location: USA ▹ New Mexico ▹ San Juan. Fossil Forest site. Collection: Joseph Hartman P02943....
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Perthite Description: Perthite is the name given intimate intermixtures of a potassium feldspar, either microcline or orthoclase, and the sodium-rich plagioclase feldspar, albite, with potassium feldspar the predominant constituent. The main chemical formula for perthite is (K,Na)AlSi 3 O 8 . Perthite is formed when the cooling of K-feldspar causes exsolution of sodium- and potassium-rich feldspar. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection. Tech details: 602 KB. Hand...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Calcite (Mexican onyx) from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico Description: This is a polished slab of a variety of calcite called “Mexican Onyx.” Mexican onyx is travertine or tufa (both types of calcite) formed at hot springs. Other than the banding, Mexican onyx has no relationship to true onyx which is a variety of agate. This sample is from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico and is about 9.5 cm across. A specimen such as this could not be collected today because Carlsbad Caverns is a National...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Jalpaite with chrysocolla and silver Description: Jalpaite, a silver-copper sulfide, forms by low-temperature hydrothermal precipitation. It is the lead gray material in this photo. Also present is a very small amount of green chrysocolla, a hydrated copper silicate, and some very tarnished disseminated silver. This specimen is 2.5 cm across. Location: Mexico ▹ Chihuahua. Near La Mesa. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #127. Tech details: 609 KB. Hand specimen....
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Stannite with pyrite Description: The dark black-gray material is fine grained stannite. Minor pyrite and quartz can also be seen. Stannite is a comparatively rare mineral with composition Cu 2 FeSnS 4 . It is difficult to distinguish from other dark colored dense minerals without chemical analysis. Commonly, it is steel-grey but may have an olive-green or yellowish tinge. Stannite is an ore of tin. Location: Tasmania. Near Zeehan. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Calcite from South Dakota, USA Description: This calcite specimen from South Dakota's badlands shows poorly developed crytals that grew in layers and as intergrowths. The specimen is 9 cm in longest dimension. Location: USA ▹ South Dakota. badlands. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #609. Tech details: 600 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Anorthite Description: Anorthite is an end member and one of the rarer members of the plagioclase series. The chemical formula for anorthite is CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 . The name comes from the Greek, an + orthos, meaning “not upright” in allusion to the oblique crystals. Location: Japan ▹ Hokkaido ▹ Otaro. Near Fuggoppe. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #3074. Tech details: 180 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Serpentine, var. chrysotile Description: Serpentine is a magnesium iron silicate hydroxide. Serpentine is a major rock forming mineral and is found as a constituent in many metamorphic and weather igneous rocks. It often colors many of these rocks to a green color and most rocks that have a green color probably have serpentine in some amount. Serpentine is a general name applied to several members of a polymorphic group. It has been used as a substitute for jade and is sometimes difficult to...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Danburite Description: Danburite is a fairly unknown mineral. It is a silicate with crystals similar to topaz. Collectors who favor clear quartz will appreciate danburite's diamond-shaped cross-section and wedge like termination. Danburites chemical formula is CaB 2 (SiO 4 ) 2 . Danburite's original locality is now buried under the city of Danbury, Connecticut. Location: USA ▹ New York. Near Russel. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #1699. Tech details: 254 KB. Hand...
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Cleavelandite Description: Cleavelandite is a variety of albite, NaAlSi 3 O 8 (sodium aluminum silicate). It is the last of the feldspars to crystallize from molten rock. Cleavelandite forms extremely thin, platy, white and sometimes very transparent crystals. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #1738. Tech details: 397 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of...
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GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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Supai Group sandstones, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona Description: View of cross bedding and exfoliation of Supai Group in North Canyon off Marble Canyon, Grand Canyon National Park. Chronostratigraphy: Lower Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian. Lithostratigraphy: Supai Group. Geologic province: Colorado Plateau. Location: USA ▹ Arizona ▹ Coconino. Near Grand Canyon. Grand Canyon National Park. Collection: Joseph Hartman P06105. Tech details: 751 KB. Outcrop. Kodachrome, TIFF format. The...
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GeoDIL Images
by Mike Davis
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Baraboo Quartzite, Baraboo, Sauk County, Wisconsin Description: This is a fine grained quartzite from near Devils Lake, Wisconsin. The only mineral present is quartz. This sample is 10 cm across. Chronostratigraphy: Precambrian. Lithostratigraphy: Baraboo Quartzite. Location: USA ▹ Wisconsin ▹ Sauk. Near Baraboo. Collection: Ward’s Collection of Classic North American Rocks #76. Tech details: 636 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The...
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GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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Nashville Description: Nashville, TN. Location: USA ▹ Tennessee. Near Nashville. Collection: Joseph Hartman C8792. Tech details: 403 KB. Outcrop. Ektachrome. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota (UND) in fall 2000. Dexter Perkins and Joseph Hartman, of UND's Department of Geology and Geological...
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GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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Saddle Canyon Hike in Grand Canyon with a View of Temple Butte Lens, Coconino County, Arizona Description: The Temple Butte Limestone consists medium bedded limestone of a purplish-gray to a pinkish-gray color. The lens vary in size, but often have a conglomeritic zone near the base. Chronostratigraphy: Devonian. Lithostratigraphy: Temple Butte Limestone. Geologic province: Colorado Plateau. Location: USA ▹ Arizona ▹ Coconino. Near Grand Canyon. Temple Butte. Collection: Joseph Hartman...
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GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Puy de Pariou and Puy de Dome, Auvergne, France Description: The Massif Central in the center of France (Auvergne region), contains a range of volcanoes made up of the Monts Dome (1465 meters at the Puy de Dome) and the Monts Dore (1886 meters at the Puy de Sancy). Eruptions included both Peleean (involving the formation and collapse of lava domes) and Strombolian (lava fountains and ejection of cinders, lapilli, blocks and bombs). The last eruptions were about 4,000 years ago. The region...
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GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Billie Mine, Death Valley National Park Description: Billie Mine, Death Valley National Park, Borax mine. Location: USA ▹ California. Near Death Valley. Collection: E451202991V. Tech details: 402 KB. Vista. Canon Eos Rebel, 55mm lens, Kodak Ektachrome Elite. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was initiated at the University of North Dakota...
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GeoDIL Images
by Joseph Hartman
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UND Hawaii Spring Break 2002 Trip Description: Group photo standing on pahoehoe near an active basaltic lava flow. Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawaii. Location: USA ▹ Hawaii. Near Hilo. Volcanoes National Park. Collection: Joseph Hartman C9193. Tech details: 164 KB. Kodachrome, TIFF. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images primarily intended as a teaching and learning resource for K-16 educators and students. This project was...
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GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Labradorite Description: Labradorite is a member of the plagioclase series of minerals. Labradorite can produce a colorful play of light across cleavage planes and in sliced sections called labradorescence. The usually intense colors range from the typical blues and violets through greens, yellows and oranges. Some rare specimens display all these colors simultaneously. The color display is from lamellar intergrowths inside the crystal. Its chemical formula is (Ca,Na)(Si,Al) 4 O 8 . Labradorite...
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GeoDIL Images
by Nessa Eull
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Orpiment and realgar from California Description: Orpiment (yellow), As 2 S 3 (arsenic sulfide), is a rare mineral that usually forms with realgar (pink), AsS (arsenic sulfide). In the past, these minerals have been major ores of arsenic. Arsenic is not in high demand today but was formerly used for pigments, as a firework coloring agent and for several other purposes. Location: USA ▹ California Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #88. Tech details: 695 KB. Hand...
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GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Comparison of granite (left) and arkose (right) Description: These samples of granite (on left) and arkose (on right) both contain the same minerals: predominately quartz and K-feldspar. Granite is an igneous rock, so the crystals interlock in a mosaic-like pattern. Arkose is a detrital sedimentary rock, so the crystals are piled together like grains of sand. The red color of both is due to iron oxidation. These samples are part of the Petrology teaching collection of the Department of Geology...
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GeoDIL Images
by Nessa Eull
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Chrysocolla Description: Chrysocolla, CuSiO 3 -nH 2 O (hydrated copper silicate), is an attractive blue-green mineral that provides a unique color to the mineral world. Chyrsocolla is perhaps more appropriately a mineraloid than a true mineral. Most of the time it is amorphous, meaning that it does not have a coherent crystalline structure. However, at higher temperatures it does demonstrate a distorted crystal structure that seems to be composed of Si 4 O 10 sheets. Chrysocolla forms in the...
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GeoDIL Images
by Nessa Eull
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Corundum Description: Corundum, Al 2 O 3 (aluminum oxide), is a very hard mineral. Its hardness can be partially attributed to the strong and short oxygen-aluminum bonds. This specimen, 2 cm across, is not particularly attractive, although it does show corundum's hexagonal symmetry. Beautiful gem varieties of corundum are ruby and sapphire. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection. Tech details: 261 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon...
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GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Sill containing mantle xenoliths, Elephant Butte, New Mexico Description: This interesting basalt unit (dark layer) is about 1 meter thick. It contains abundant xenoliths of different lithologies. The most common are (mantle) peridotites, and (crustal) granulites. The basalt cuts across the apparent bedding in the surrounding country rock, but has been described as a flow in some literature. Pocket knife for scale. Geologic province: Rio Grande Rift. Location: USA ▹ New Mexico. Near Truth or...
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GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Topaz Description: Topaz, Al 2 SiO 4 (F,OH) 3 (aluminum silicate fluoride hydroxide), is a common gemstone that has been used for centuries in jewelry. Its golden brown to yellow color is classic but is confused with the less valuable citrine, which is sold under the name topaz. The blue topaz that is often confused with aquamarine is rarely natural and is produced by irradiating and then heating clear crystals. Location: Brazil. Near Minas Gerais. Collection: Ward’s Classroom Collection of...
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GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Hematite Description: Hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), an oxide of iron, is a very common mineral and the main ore of iron. It occurs in hydrothermal veins and in sedimentary deposits, and is also found as a minor constituent of some igneous rocks. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #82. Tech details: 662 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro lens. The Geoscience Digital Image Library (GeoDIL) is a collection of Earth science images...
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GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Heteromorphite from Felsobanya, Hungary Description: Heteromorphite (Pb 7 Sb 8 S 19 ) is an iron black colored member of a series with galena. Its name comes from the greek for “different” and “form” in allusion to a proposed dimorph. Its crystal form is pyramidal in subparallel growths. Location: Hungary. Near Felsobanya. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #250. Tech details: 843 KB. Hand specimen. Fujifilm FinePix S1Pro digital camera; 60mm AF Nikon micro...
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GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Hematite ore from the Upper Huronian Biwabik Formation, Minnesota Description: Hematite, Fe 2 O 3 (iron oxide), is an important ore of iron and it's red color makes it useful as a pigment. Hematite gets its name from a Greek word meaning blood-like because of the color of its powder. Ancient superstition held that large deposits of hematite formed from battles that were fought and the subsequent blood that flowed into the ground. Visible crystals of hematite are rare; most samples are very fine...
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GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Hematite of Ruth Slate Formation Description: Hematite is a form of iron oxide, Fe 2 O 3 , containing about 70% metal. It occurs in nature as red to brown to orange masses and coatings, and in metallic to semimetallic steel-gray to black crystalline forms. Hematite that has a metallic luster is called specular hematite . Red powdered hematite is used as a pigment (ocher) and as rouge in polishing. Hematite is an important ore of iron. Extensive and richly productive deposits occur in the Lake...
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GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Dolomite, CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 , from Joplin, Missouri Description: Dolomite crystals often have a beautiful pinkish color, pearly luster and unusual crystal habit that includes curved crystal faces. Samples such as this are sometimes called “pearl spar.” Although dolomite is a carbonate, it belongs in a different crystal class than calcite, the most common carbonate mineral. Dolomite generally forms more elongated crystals than calcite. This specimen is 8.5 cm across. Location: USA ▹ Missouri...
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GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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Granitic needle and two rock climbers, Black Hills, South Dakota Description: The core of the Black Hills is composed of 1.7 billion year old granite that intruded a Pre-Cambrian schist. The tough Harney Peak Granite has resisted weathering and is exposed in many places. It forms Mt. Rushmore, other (uncarved) domes and in some places has weathered into spectacular spires and needles which are partly a result of how it intruded and partly due to weathering. Some of the most accessible needles...
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GeoDIL Images
by Neil Kadrmas
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Amazonite (microcline) Description: Amazonite is a term used to describe green to blue microcline that is sometimes used as a gemstone. More typically, microcline (a K-feldspar) is white to tan in color. In this photo, the “pseudo-hexagonal” nature of the feldspar crystals can be seen. This specimen is 7 cm across. It comes from a well-known collecting site at the Rocket Mining Claim, near Pikes Peak, Colorado. Location: USA ▹ Colorado. Near Colorado Springs. Rocket Mining Claim....
Topics: geology, mineralogy
GeoDIL Images
by Dexter Perkins
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On top of a cinder cone in the Cima Volcanic Field, California Description: This view shows the top of one of the many cinder cones in the Cima Volcanic Field, with another cone visible in the distance to the North. The volcanic eruptions that produced the cones of the Mojave National Preserve occurred between 5 and 20 million years ago when the region was the site of intense mountain building activity. The student is looking for xenoliths - inclusions of the Earth's mantle carried up in the...
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GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Quartz, rock crystal Description: Rock crystal is the name given to all clear colorless quartz, SiO 2 (silicon dioxide). Rock crystal often has inclusions of other minerals and these inclusions sometimes produce popular varieties of ornamental stone. Golden rutile inclusions produce a unique stone aptly named rutilated quartz that has a very hair-like look. Another similar named stone is called tourmalinated quartz and contains intricatly crossing needles of black schorl tourmaline trapped in...
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GeoDIL Images
by Shannon Heinle
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Lazurite Description: Lazurite is a silicate whose well-formed, deep blue crystals are rare and valuable. Lapis lazuli or lapis, for short, is mostly lazurite but commonly contains pyrite and calcite. The rich blue color is due to the sulfur that is inherent in the structure of lazurite. The original source in Afghanistan still produces the finest quality material. Na 3 Ca(Al 3 Si 3 O 12 )S is lazurite's chemical formula. The name comes from the Persian, lazward, meaning blue. Collection:...
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GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Diamond Description: Diamond, elemental carbon (C), is the hardest substance found in nature, but few people realize that diamond is four times harder than the next hardest natural mineral, corundum (sapphire and ruby). Diamond's single flaw (perfect cleavage) is far outdistanced by the sum of its positive qualities. It has a broad color range, high refraction, high dispersion or fire, very low reactivity to chemicals, rarity, and extreme hardness and durability. This sample is a oval cut...
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GeoDIL Images
by Darla Sondrol
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Hematite from Scranton, Minnesota Description: Hematite, Fe 2 O 3 (iron oxide), is sometimes an important ore of iron. It is also used as a pigment. Hematite gets its name from a Greek word meaning blood-like , because of the color of its powder. Ancient superstition held that large deposits of hematite formed from blood where battles were fought. This specimen is about 6 cm across. Location: USA ▹ Minnesota. Near Scranton. Collection: University of North Dakota Mineralogy Collection #389....
Topics: geology, mineralogy